“A landrace of a self-pollinated crop can be defined as a variable population which is identifiable and usually has a local name. It lacks “formal” crop improvement, is characterized by a specific adaptation to the environmental conditions of the area of cultivation (tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses of the area) and is closely associated with the traditional uses, knowledge, habits, dialects, and celebrations of the people who developed and continue using it.”
Two types of landraces are distinguished:
Primary landrace: a crop that has developed its unique characteristics through repeated in-situ grower selection and that has never been subjected to formal plant breeding. These can be divided into autochthonous (a crop that is grown in the original location where it developed its unique characteristics through grower selection; its genetic and socio-economic characteristics are associated specifically with this location) and allochthonous (an introduced crop that is locally adapted but has developed its unique characteristics through grower selection in another region).
Secondary landrace: a crop that has developed in the formal plant breeding sector but which is now maintained through repeated in-situ grower selection and seed saving, which is likely to be genetically distinct from the originally bred material.”